History of agriculture

History of Agriculture in India from 1788 to 2020. All important historical data and agricultural schemes, reforms included.

1788: First attempt at cotton crop improvement in Bombay province
First agricultural society at Calcutta
First model agricultural farm at Saidapet, Tamil Nadu
Department of Agriculture created
Higher Education in Agriculture at Coimbatore
First Report of Famine Commission (Famine during 1876-77)
Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory, now Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Pune
Second report of Famine Commission
Third report of Famine Commission
First Irrigation Commission
Introduction of large scale cultivation of groundnut
Introduction of Cambodia cotton
Imperial Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa in Bihar
Imperial Sugarcane Breeding Station at Coimbatore
Royal Commission on Agriculture
Imperial (Indian) Council of Agricultural Research at Delhi
IARI shifted to Delhi
Grow More Food Campaign
Central Rice Research Institute
Fertilisers and Chemicals, Travancore
Project for Intensification of Regional Research on Cotton, Oilseeds and Millets (PIRRCOM)
The concept of the All-India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) introduced, and the first AICRP on maize started by Dr. B.P. Paul
Status of Deemed University accorded to IARI
CAZRI, Jodhpur
The first State Agricultural University (SAU) at the Pantnagar established on the pattern of the Land Grant Colleges of the USA
Intensive Agriculture District Programme (IADP)
1960: IRRI, Philippines
1962 : IGFRI, Jhasi
1963 : National Seed Corporation
1963: CTCRI, Trivandrum (Tuber crops)
1964 : The ICAR became the apex organization for all the agricultural research and education in the country, with the functions of financing and guiding research and its co-ordination
1965: Intensive Agriculture Area Programme (IIAP)
1965: National Demonstration Programme
1965 : All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project, Hyderabad
1966 : Various agricultural research institutes under the Ministry of Agriculture, placed under the purview of the ICAR
1966: Placement of different agricultural research institutes under the purview of ICAR
1966 : HYV Programme
1966 : Multiple Cropping Schemes
1969 : CSSRI (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute) at Karnal (Haryana)
1970 : Drought Prone Area Programme
1970 : Release of first cotton hybrid in India
1970 : CPCRI at Kasargod (Kerala) (Plantation crops)
1971 : All India Coordinated Project for Dryland Agriculture
1972 : ICRISAT
1973 : Minikit Trails Programme
1973 : Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) created in the Ministry of Agriculture Director-General, ICAR, given the status of Secretary, DARE, and Chairman of the Governing Body of the ICAR
1974 : Established first Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) at Pondicherry
1974 : Command Area Development
1975 : An All-India Agricultural Research Service (ARS) established. Also, Agricultural Scientists’ Recruitment Board (ASRB) established to recruit scientists for the ICAR institutions
1976 : Report of the National Commission on Agriculture published National Seed Project (NSP) launched for production of breeder’s seed, with financial assistance from the World Bank Seven Trainers’ Training Centres (TTCs) established
1976 : Report of National Commission on Agriculture
1976 : Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
1977 : Training and Visit (T&V) System
1979 : The Lab-to-Land Programme and the National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) launched
1982 : National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
1986 : Establishment of Technology mission on oilseeds
1984: A separate Division of the Agricultural Extension, headed by the Deputy Director-General (DDG), created in the ICAR
1985 : NAEP (National Agricultural Extension Project)
1987 : Separate Divisions for Horticulture and Fisheries, headed by DDGs, carved out of the Crop Science and Animal Science Divisions, respectively
1988: GVK Rao Committee, constituted to review infrastructure, personnel policies and functional role of the ICAR, submitted its report. Also the Agricultural Engineering Division, headed by a DDG, carved out from the Natural Resource Management Division Created senior-level research management positions at the ICAR headquarters in the post-harvest management, home science, policy and perspective planning, Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues and Agricultural Research Information System
1989: The ICAR was bestowed with the King Baudouin Award for its valuable contribution in ushering in the Green Revolution
1993: Release of First rice hybrid in India
1995: Institution-Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) launched for technology assessment, refinement and transfer with farmers’ participation. Also launched an Agricultural Human Resource Development (AHRD) Project with financial assistance from the World Bank
1996: National Gene Bank, with a holding capacity of more than 1 million seed-samples at – 20°C and 25,000 samples at -150°C to – 196°C in liquid-nitrogen, established for ex-situ conservation of agro-biodiversity Establishment of National Gene Bank at New Delhi
1998: Launched National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP), funded by the World Bank, to  improve efficiency of the organization and management systems of the ICAR, to enhance the performance and effectiveness of the priority research programmes and also of the scientists; and to develop models that will improve effectiveness and financial sustainability of the technology dissemination system 3.2 Institutional Growth.
2004: Again awarded King Baudouin Award for research and development efforts made under partnership in Rice Wheat Consortium.
2005: National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP)
NAIP (National Agricultural Innovation Project)

National Food Security Mission (NFSM) 2007 :

The National Food Security Mission was launched in FY08 with an outlay of USD1.2 billion during the 11th five-year plan. It aimed at increasing the production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10 million tonnes, 8 million tonnes and 2 million tonnes by FY12

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) 2007 :

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) was launched in FY08 with an outlay of USD5.3

billion during the 11th five-year plan. It aimed at incentivizing states to increase outlays for agriculture and allied activities, thereby encouraging growth opportunities in the agriculture sector

2013- 2014: National Crop Insurance Programme (NCIP) 

2015: Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana 

2015: Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)

2016: Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) 

The existing National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and the Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS) were replaced by PMFBY, from April 1, 2016.

In 2016, the central government launched a crop insurance policy, Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, for providing financial support to farmers and covering their crop losses. The premium was payable on the principal amount to the farmers.

2016:  eNAM

National Agriculture Market (eNAM), a pan-India electronic trading portal networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities. It aims to promote uniformity in agriculture marketing by streamlining of procedures across the integrated markets, removing information asymmetry between buyers and sellers and promoting real-time price discovery based on actual demand and supply.

2017: APMC farmers go cashless

2017: Contract Farming Law
2018: Agriculture Export Policy, 2018
2018: Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA)
In September 2018, the Government of India announced a Rs 15,053 crore procurement policy, under which states can decide the compensation scheme and can also partner with private agencies to ensure fair prices for farmers in the country.
2019: Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan-Dhan Yojana (PMKMY)
A minimum fixed pension of Rs 3000 to be provided to eligible small and marginal farmers on attaining the age of 60 years.
2019: Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana (PMKisan)
Prime Minister of India launched the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana (PM-Kisan) and transferred Rs 2,021 crore to bank accounts of more than 10 million beneficiaries on February 24, 2019.
Eligible farmers received Rs 6,000 in three installments

2019: Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evem Utthan Mahabhiyan (PM KUSUM)

2020: 2020 saw reforms in agricultural policies and financial boost through government investments, primarily driven by the motive to reduce the adversity caused by COVID19.

Amendment of the Essential Commodities Act (ECA) & Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act

Expansion of federal eCommerce platform e-NAM app.

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